Copper (Cu), as an essential micronutrient in human and animal metabolism, easily spreads and excessively accumulates in rearing water, which make it more susceptible to fish farms and threatens the health of aquatic animals. In this issue, the protective effect of vitamin C against oxidative damage caused by copper exposure was studied in monocytes/macrophages (MO/MФ) and IgM+ B cells of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), the cell types possessing phagocytic activities. The significant increase of ROS level and up-regulation of proinflammatory factors accompanied by depletion of GSH and down-regulation of antioxidative molecules in MO/MФ and IgM+ B cells, when stressed with CuO NPs or Cu ions, indicated the induction of oxidative damage due to the toxicological effects with copper exposure. Copper induced cell apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway in these two cell populations was demonstrated with disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and activation of apoptosis factor.
Furthermore, the phagocytic abilities for microspheres and bioparticle uptake significantly decreased in these two cell populations upon CuO NPs or Cu ions; meanwhile, antigen presentation of MO/MФ and antibody production of IgM+ B cells were also inhibited. However, vitamin C supplementation reversed all these biochemical indices, as well as cell apoptosis and phagocytic abilities in MO/M and IgM+ B cells that were induced by CuO NPs or Cu ions. In conclusion, these results revealed that vitamin C exerts cytoprotective effects against oxidative damage through its antioxidant properties and may be of therapeutic use in preventing toxicological effects caused by copper exposure.

VDJ Gene Usage in IgM Repertoires of Rhesus and Cynomolgus Macaques

Macaques are frequently used to evaluate candidate vaccines and to study infection-induced antibody responses, requiring an improved understanding of their naïve immunoglobulin (IG) repertoires. Baseline gene usage frequencies contextualize studies of antigen-specific immune responses, providing information about how easily one may stimulate a response with a particular VDJ recombination. Studies of human IgM repertoires have shown that IG VDJ gene frequencies vary several orders of magnitude between the most and least utilized genes in a manner that is consistent across many individuals but to date similar analyses are lacking for macaque IgM repertoires.
Here, we quantified VDJ gene usage levels in unmutated IgM repertoires of 45 macaques, belonging to two species and four commonly used subgroups: Indian and Chinese origin rhesus macaques and Indonesian and Mauritian origin cynomolgus macaques. We show that VDJ gene frequencies differed greatly between the most and least used genes, with similar overall patterns observed in macaque subgroups and individuals.
However, there were also clear differences affecting the use of specific V, D and J genes. Furthermore, in contrast to humans, macaques of both species utilized IGHV4 family genes to a much higher extent and showed evidence of evolutionary expansion of genes of this family. Finally, we used the results to inform the analysis of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody elicited in SHIV-infected rhesus macaques, RHA1.V2.01, which binds the apex of the Env trimer in a manner that mimics the binding mode of PGT145. We discuss the likelihood that similar antibodies could be elicited in different macaque subgroups.

A nasal double DNA adjuvant system induces atheroprotective IgM antibodies via dendritic cell-B-1a B cell interactions

We previously demonstrated that the dendritic cell (DC)-targeting nasal double DNA adjuvant system, which consists of a DNA plasmid expressing Flt3 ligand (pFL) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG ODN), elicits specific immune responses to various antigens in the mucosal and systemic compartments. Here, we investigated, using phosphorylcholine (PC)-conjugated keyhole limpet hemocyanin (PC-KLH) as an antigen, whether the nasal double DNA adjuvant system induces protective immunity to atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE KO) mice. Further, we assessed the molecular and cellular mechanisms in the induction of anti-PC-specific immune responses.
Nasal immunization with PC-KLH plus pFL and CpG ODN enhanced induction of PC-specific IgM in plasma, peritoneal fluids, and nasal washes when compared with mice administered PC-KLH alone. Of importance, these antibodies exhibited highly specific binding to the PC molecule, and dose-dependent binding to anti-T15 idiotype (AB1-2). Twelve weeks after the last immunization, the nasal double DNA adjuvant system with PC-KLH resulted in a reduction of atherogenesis in the aortic arch of ApoE KO mice. Therefore, we next assessed immunocytological mechanism to induce these antibodies.
The nasal double DNA adjuvant system with PC-KLH resulted not only in significantly increased frequencies of CD11c+ DCs in the spleen, peritoneal cavity (PEC), and nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT), but also significantly increased expression of a proliferation-inducing ligand and B-cell-activating factor by CD11c+ DCs. In addition, the double DNA adjuvant system induced significantly increased numbers of B-1 B cells in the spleen, PEC, and NALT, and increased expression of transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor on CD5+ B220+ (B-1a) B cells. These findings demonstrated that the nasal double DNA adjuvant system with PC-KLH resulted in the induction of T15-like antibodies in the mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues through interaction between DCs and B-1a B cells, and inhibited the progression of atherogenesis.

Introduction of IgM testing for the diagnosis of acute Lyme borreliosis: a study of the benefits, limitations and costs

Testing for IgM antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in Scottish patients with suspected Lyme borreliosis was introduced in 2018 to supplement the IgG testing already in situ. Results from 2018 to 2020 were assessed alongside available clinical data to evaluate the utility of IgM testing in serum. An estimated false positive rate of 25.5% was observed with IgM immunoblot vs 80.1% for IgM chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). IgM testing can aid earlier diagnoses if used within a selective two-tier testing protocol: only patients with acute onset of symptoms should be tested for IgM CLIA but confirmation by immunoblot and consideration of clinical picture is necessary.

Distinct Mechanisms of IgM-Antibody-Mediated Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome and Successful Treatment with Recombinant von Willebrand Factor in One Patient

Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome (AVWS) is a rare coagulation disorder which can be associated with IgM-paraproteinaemia. Recently, recombinant von Willebrand factor (rVWF) has become available for the treatment of bleedings in patients with inherited von Willebrand disease, but experience in patients with AVWS is limited. We report on two patients with AVWS with underlying IgM paraproteinaemia with distinct underlying pathomechanisms. In one patient the paraprotein built unspecific complexes with von Willebrand factor. In the other patient, we were able to detect an IgM antibody against von Willebrand factor. Bleeding in this patient was successfully treated with rVWF. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the successful use of rVWF in a patient with AVWS with the detection of a von Willebrand factor-specific antibody.

PSA-IgM and iXip in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer: clinical relevance and future potential. A review

The Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is the first filter in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Unfortunately, it is organ-specific but not cancer-specific. In addition, some prostate cancers are not clinically-significant and their diagnosis and treatment may lead to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. For these reasons, other markers have been proposed in the last years, such as PCA3 and PHI, but none of these are currently used in the clinical practice on large scale.

Sheep IgM(IgM)

| Qayee Biotechnology | 96T: 495.60 EUR


| ScyTek Laboratories | 2 ml: 94.80 EUR


| ScyTek Laboratories | 6 ml: 129.60 EUR


| ScyTek Laboratories | 25 ml: 302.40 EUR

IgM/ Rat IgM ELISA Kit

| Lifescience Market | 96 Tests: 1063.20 EUR

Cat IgM

| Fitzgerald | 1 mg: 470.40 EUR

Dog IgM

| Fitzgerald | 1 mg: 470.40 EUR

Rat IgM

| Fitzgerald | 1 mg: 452.40 EUR

Pig IgM

| Fitzgerald | 1 mg: 438.00 EUR

Dog IgM

| Unibiotest | 10mg: 1641.60 EUR

Dog IgM

| Unibiotest | 1mg: 627.60 EUR

Goat IgM

| Fitzgerald | 1 mg: 452.40 EUR

Horse IgM

| Fitzgerald | 1 mg: 438.00 EUR

Mouse IgM

| Fitzgerald | 1 mg: 438.00 EUR

Sheep IgM

| Fitzgerald | 1 mg: 438.00 EUR

Mouse IgM

| Unibiotest | 10mg: 2148.00 EUR

Mouse IgM

| Unibiotest | 1mg: 728.40 EUR

Human IgM

| EnoGene | 100ug: 411.60 EUR

Bovine IgM

| Fitzgerald | 1 mg: 438.00 EUR

Rabbit IgM

| Fitzgerald | 1 mg: 452.40 EUR

Donkey IgM

| Fitzgerald | 1 mg: 452.40 EUR

Hamster IgM

| Fitzgerald | 1 mg: 492.00 EUR

Chicken IgM

| Unibiotest | 10mg: 1641.60 EUR

Chicken IgM

| Unibiotest | 1mg: 627.60 EUR

IgM antibody

| Fitzgerald | 100 ug: 340.80 EUR
In the last decade, PSA-IgM and the algorithm iXip have emerged for the diagnosis of prostate cancer and showed to perform well in decreasing the detection of clinically-insignificant prostate cancer and in reducing the number of unnecessary prostate biopsies. This review focuses on data reported in the literature on PSA-IgM and iXip as well as on the future perspectives of their usage in the clinical practice on large scale.